Procrastination is described as a tendency to constant delaying of decisions (Klingsieck, 2013), intentional avoiding of carrying out the intended and necessary activities (Van Eerde, 2000) “self-weakening” (Procee et al., 2013) or non-adaptive behaviour caused by problems with self-regulation and executing purposeful activities connected with commencement or completion of an activity (Ferrari, Tice, 2000; Park, Sperling, 2012). Researchers mention the following negative effects of procrastination: deteriorating general feeling, headaches and hypoimmunity (Tice, Baumeister, 1997; Sirois, Melia-Gordon, Pychyl, 2003; Klingsieck, 2013), decreased fitness and vitality, decrease of efficiency (Sirois, 2004), as well as mental problems, fear, anxiety, depression (Ferrari, 1991; Ferrari, Johnson, McCown, 1995; Flett, Blankstein, Martin, 1995; Haycock, McCarthy, Skay, 1998; Tibbett, Ferrari, 2015).
Procrastinating is a problem for about 15-25% of adult population (Ellis, Knaus, 1977; McCown, Johnson, Petzel, 1989; Harriott, Ferrari, 1996; Ferrari, 2010; Procee et al., 2013; Tibbett, Ferrari, 2015). Among academic youth the percentage of persons admitting chronic “putting off” is as high as 80-90% (Ferrari et al., 2007; Steel, 2007; Steel, Ferrari, 2013), of which experiencing serious negative consequences and problems is reported by 50% (Day, Mensink, O’Sullivan, 2000; Onwuegbuzie, 2000; Steel, 2007).
The reasons for academic form of procrastination the researchers find in behaviour typical of students’ lifestyle, such as putting difficult tasks off until the last moment and inadequate estimation of time, indispensable for correct task execution (Van Eerde, 2003; Park, Sperling, 2012). The aptness to “putting off ” may also result from the property of the task (Procee et al., 2013), the accomplishment of which is accompanied by boredom, frustration (Blunt, Pychyl, 2000), negative valuation of meaning (Little, 1983) or disadvantageous motivational attitude (Vansteenkiste et al., 2009). The cause of procrastination is also the divergence between intention and activity, resulting from disorders in self-regulation system connected with behaviours oriented at achieving personal goals (Lay, Knish, Zanatta, 1992; Zimmerman, 2000).
Attempts were made at explaining procrastination while studying the connection between self-regulation and sense of one’s own effectiveness (Park, Sperling, 2012), however, the results turned out to be ambiguous. Certain studies indicate that students with high level of self-regulation simultaneously have a high sense of their own effectiveness, are academically active, able to set task goals and accomplish them (Pintrich, 2000; Steel, 2007). On the other hand, persons with low self-regulation level frequently simply learn ineffectively (Zimmerman, 2002). Therefore, it was deemed that procrastination is influenced much more than by self-regulation, by the following factors: applying ineffective -preventive strategies, lack of meta-cognitive skills and inappropriate work organization (Ferrari, 2001; Howell, Watson, 2007), as well as impulsiveness, problems with focusing attention and decreased resistance to stress (Steel, 2007).
Personality conditionings of procrastination
The connection of procrastination with personality traits is frequently analysed. Negative correlations were found between procrastination and diligence (Locke, Latham, 1990, 2004), agreeableness (Knaus, 1979; Burka, Yuen, 1983), openness to new experience (Schouwenburg, Lay, 1995; Watson, 2001) and, in a not very significant degree, with extraversion (Ainslie, 1992; Schouwenburg, Lay, 1995). Positive interaction, in turn, concerns the connection of procrastination with neuroticism, with participation of such mediators as irrational thinking and perfectionism (Ellis, Knaus, 1977; Burka, Yuen, 1983; McCown, Johnson, Petzel, 1989; Schlenker, Weigold, 1990; Beck, Koons, Milgrim, 2000). The tendency to procrastination is also related to decreased mood or depression, typical of neuroticism (Ruiz-Caballero, Bermudez, 1995; Saklofske, Kelly, Jansen, 1995). Thomas P. Tibbett and Joseph R. Ferrari (2015) demonstrated that neuroticism, especially in connection with indecisiveness and tendency to introversion, enhances general procrastination, whereas its decisive di- mension is connected with negative experiences from the past, as well as with the application of wrong patterns of postponing decisions facing conflict situations, ac- companied by a strong sense of fear (Beswick, Rothblum, Mann, 1988; Harriott, Fer- rari, Dovidio, 1996; Ferrari, Dovidio, 2000, 2001; Milgram, Tenne, 2000; Watson, 2001; Tibbett, Ferrari, 2015). This form of procrastination affects results in science (Ger- meijs, De Boeck, 2002), interpresonal relationships (Ferrari, Emmons, 1994), somatic and mental health state.
Other studies do not, however, confirm the connections between neuroticism and procrastination (Johnson, Bloom, 1995; Schouwenburg, Lay, 1995).
Due to ambiguity of results concerning the relationship of personality traits with procrastination, many authors postulate justifiability of continuing such kind of research queries (Tibbett, Ferrari, 2015).
Methodology of research
Study objective and hypotheses
On the basis of literature survey it was assumed that personality traits may constitute a significant moderator of the relationship between the tendency to procrastination and its particular aspects and the potential factors enhancing the “putting off “ attitude.
Formulating the hypotheses we assumed that:
Additionally, the connection between sex, studied discipline and the tendency to procrastination was checked.
The examined persons
We examined 47 2nd year students (74.5% women, 25.5% men) of the Faculty of Pedagogy (Education) and Psychology (N= 27) and the Faculty of Economics (N= 20) of Maria Curie Skłodowska University in Lublin. The mean age of the examinees – 20.28 years (min. = 19, max. = 24, standard deviation = .994). Exclusively the persons who expressed their consent to it took part in the examination.
Research tools and methods
The tests were performed with the use of pen-and-paper method. The following tools were used:
All the calculations were made with the use of the statistic package IBM SPSS Statistics 22.
The conducted descriptive statistics (table 1) show that sex or domain of studies differentiate the examinees as to: 1/ openness: students of psychology demonstrated higher index (M= 28.74) than students of economics (M= 24.25), 2/ neuroticism (MKobiety= 27.26) (MMen= 17.00) and 3/ lack of organization (MWomen= 3.26; MMen= 2.33), in both the cases women demonstrated higher indexes than men.
Table 1. Descriptive statistics for the analyzed variables, including study domain and sex of the examinees
On the basis of literature survey we assumed that there exists a connection between personality traits, especially high neuroticism, as well as between low extraversion and diligence with procrastination. The analysis conducted with the use of correlation coefficient r-Pearson(unilateral significance) confirms our assumption. At the same time extraversion and diligence turned out to be negatively connected with all aspects of procrastination, i.e. general (pExtraversion= .003; pDiligence< .001), decisive (pEx- traversion= .012; pDiligence< .001), behavioral (pExtraversion= .020; pDiligence< .001) and non-adap- tive (pEkstrawersja= .041; pSumienność= .003). Neuroticism, in turn, is positively connected with the general aspect (p= .007), decisive (p< .001) and behavioral (p= .023) (table 2).
Table 2. Correlations between personality traits and procrastination
On the basis of previous studies (Markiewicz, 2017) it was assumed that the significant predictors of the tendency to procrastination can be: fear of failure, fear of rejection and criticism, low motivation and perseverance, as well as lack of organization. The conducted regression analysis confirmed our assumptions. Significant (p < .05) predictors for general procrastination turned out to be: fear of failure (βstand= .275), low motivation and perseverance (βstand= .324), lack of organization (βstand= .552). Besides, it was found that preferring participation in social life (βstand= .386), as well as economic and social situation in Europe (βstand= -.594) and in the world (βstand= -.548) also constitute significant procrastination predictors. The assumed model turned out to be well adjusted to data F(11,35) = 8.069, p = .000 and it explained 63% of variances.
Significant (p < .05) predictors of decisive procrastination, in turn, turned out to be: fear of failure (βstand= .371), lack of organization (βstand= .338), preferring participation in social life (βstand= .500), assessment of social and economic situation in Europe (βstand= -.556) and in the world (βstand= -.610). The adopted model reveals good adjustment to data F(11,35) = 4.565, p = .000 and explains 46% of variances.
In case of behavioural procrastination significant (p < .05) predictors turned out to be low motivation and perseverance (βstand= .338), lack of organization (βstand= .530), temptation or something that distracts attention while performing a task (βstand= .358), as well as the assessment of social and economic situation in Europe (βstand= -.533). The model demonstrates good adjustment to data F(11,35) = 7.730, p = .000 and explains 62% of variances.
None of the isolated variables revealed a relationship (dependence) with procrastination in non-adaptive dimension (table 3).
Table 3.Predictors of procrastinating behaviour
Thus, the conducted regression analysis confirmed our assumptions.
It was assumed that the intensity of personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion and diligence), may modify the connection between particular aspects of procrastination with its predictors. In order to verify our assumption, we performed a hierarchical regression analysis with the interaction component. That part of analysis was preceded by centering the explanatory variable (procrastination predictors measured by KPP) and moderator (personality traits: neuroticism, extraversion, diligence).
No significant interaction effect was found of neuroticism and fear of failure upon procrastinating (βint= .092, p = .531, F(1,43) = .399). In other words, although a strong connection was reported between neuroticism and tendency to general, decisive and behavioral procrastination (table 2), and fear of failure turned out to be a significant predictor of general and decisive procrastination (table 3), no significant influence of interaction effect of both these factors upon procrastination. Probably the fact that feeling fear is one of the components of neuroticism (Costa, McCrae, 1980, 1992), causes mutual cancelling out of these two kinds of variables in the interaction with the predictor with substantially and emotionally very similar meaning (fear of failure), which leads to wrong estimation of the moderating effect (Bedyńska, Książek, 2012).
We reported, however, the interactive effect of the influence of neuroticism, sense of low motivation and lack of organization upon general, decisive and behavioural procrastination. No significant interactive effects, in turn, were reported for non-adaptive procrastination with any of the analysed predictors (table 4).
Table 4. Interactive effect of neuroticism and procrastination enhancing factors upon its particular aspects
The connection between the sense of low motivation and procrastination turned out to be statistically significant, both in persons with low (β= .508; F(1,22) = 7.66, p = .011), and high (β= .721, F(1,21) = 22,684, p = .000) intensity of neuroticism. Similar results were obtained for the behavioural aspect of procrastination (low neuroticism: β= .587; F(1,22) = 11,588, p = .003; high: β= .737, F(1,21) = 24,911, p = .000). The connection between decisive procrastination with low motivation is, in turn, statistically insignificant (β= .129, F(1,22) = .375, p = .547) in persons with low intensity of neu- roticism. However, in persons revealing high neuroticism the relationship between these variables becomes strong (β= .608, F(1,21) = 12,342, p = .002).
The connection between the sense of lack of organization and behavioural procrastination turned out to be insignificant in persons with low neuroticism (β= .176, F(1,22) = .700, p = .412), whereas in persons with high intensity of that trait it is dis- tinct (β= .621, F(1,21) = 13,213, p = .002).
In the case of extraversion a single interactive effect was reported, concerning the sense of low motivation in connection with the behavioural aspect of procrastination (table 5).
Table 5. Interactive effect of extraversion and procrastination enhancing factors upon its particular aspects
The connection between the sense of low motivation and behavioural procrastination turned out to be statistically significant, both in persons with low (β= .737; F(1,24) = 28.536, p = .000) and high (β= .544, F(1,19) = 8.000, p = .011) intensity of ex- traversion.
Fear of failure and criticism, which did not give interactive effect with neuroticism, turned out to be statistically significant for diligence. The influence of that effect was, however, reported exclusively upon behavioural procrastination. The significant interactive effects were reported with the variable: lack of organization, but they concerned the effect upon general and behavioural procrastination (table 6).
Table 6.Interactive effect of diligence and procrastination enhancing factors upon its particular aspects
In persons with low diligence β= .075; F(1,23) = .131, p = .721) the connection between feeling fear of failure and behavioural procrastination turned out to be insignificant. High diligence, however, significantly modified the relationship between these variables (β= .422, F(1,20) = 4.337, p = .050). also in the case of fear of criticism no interactive effect was found with behavioural procrastination in persons with low diligence (β= -.50, F(1,23) = .057, p = .814). The interactive effect turned out to be significant on the level of tendency (β= .392, F(1,20) = 3,636, p = .070) for high diligence.
The connection between the sense of lack of organization and general procrastination turned out to be statistically significant, both in persons with low (β= .451; F(1,23) = 5.859, p = .024)and high β= .715, F(1,20) = 20,913, p = .000) intensity of diligence. Similar result was obtained for behavioural procrastination(low diligence β= .448, F(1,23) = 5,772, p = .025; high diligence β= .731, F(1,20) = 22,963, p = .000).
Conclusions and discussion
The data above authorize us to state that the first of the assumptions concerning the connection of personality traits, especially high neuroticism and low extraversion and diligence with procrastination found confirmation in our studies. Such connections were also reported by other researchers (in. a. Watson, 2001; Scher, Osterman, 2002; Steel, 2007; Van Eerde, 2003). The literature survey allows us to distinguish at least eight factors conditioning procrastination. These are: self-confidence, self-control, self-awareness as negative predictors and perfectionism, impulsiveness, depression, low sense of self-value (low self esteem) as well as low sense of effectiveness as positive predictors (Beswick, Rothblum, Mann, 1988; Lay et al., 1989; Ferrari, Johnson, McCown, 1995; Flett, Blankenstein, Martin, 1995; Flett, Hewitt, Martin, 1995; Lay, 1995; Beck, Koons, Milgrim, 2000; Scher, Osterman, 2002; Tan et al., 2008). Our studies demonstrated that the significant predictors of the tendency to procrastination may also be: fear of failure, low motivation and lack of organization, as well as succumbing to temptations and pleasures, taking part in social life, negative assessment of social and economic situation in Europe and in the world. These results are consistent with those obtained by Brett L. Beck, Susan R. Koons and Debra L. Milgrim (2000). These researchers emphasize that when analysing such a complicated phenomenon as the tendency to procrastination one should consider the co-occurrence of many different antecedences and a complex of personality traits, not a single feature. Thus, it is worth emphasizing that in our studies the influence of fear, as well as motivation and lack of organization upon the tendency to procrastination turned out to be regulated by the intensity of such personality traits as diligence and neuroticism. High diligence indicator significantly differentiated the connection of fear of failure and criticism with behavioural procrastination. High neuroticism index in turn, moderated the connection between low motivation and decisive procrastination, as well as between lack of organization and behavioural procrastination.
The presented analyses show the complexity of problems. It is the analysis of prediction connections and moderating effects of procrastination. The ambiguity of the obtained data indicates the need for continuing the studies. Diligent persons may be prone to putting things off, fearing criticisms of the effects of their work. Obviously procrastination behaviour will not, however, concern all diligent students, nor will they refer to all persons with increased level of fear. It is only the interaction of personality traits with various predictors that gives distinct effects connected with aptness to procrastination. In our view the obtained results also show the significance of therapeutic work with procrastinating persons, focused on identifying personality conditionings of responding to various stimuli influencing an individual.
Ainslie, G. (1992). Picotconomics. The strategic interaction of successive motivational states within the person. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Beck, U. (2004). Społeczeństwo ryzyka. W drodze do innej nowoczesności [ang. Risk Society. On the Way of Other Modernity]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLAR.
Beck, B.L. Koons, S.R., Milgrim, D.L. (2000). Correlates and consequence of behavioural procrastination: The effects of academic procrastination, self-consciousness, self- esteem, and self-handicapping. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 15 (5), 3-13. Retrived 20.10.2016 from http://search.proquest.com/openview/8486f2240d3fb230c16e89b309993850/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1819046
Bedyńska, S., Książek, M. (2012). Drogowskaz statystyczny 3. Praktyczny przewodnik wykorzystania modeli regresji oraz równań strukturalnych [ang. Statistical Indicator 3. Practical Quide to Using Regression Models and Structural Equations]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademickie Sedno, SWPS.
Beswick, G., Rothblum, E.D., Mann, L. (1988). Psychological antecendents of student procrastination. Australian Psychologist, 23 (2), 207-217, doi: 10.1080/00050068808 255605
Blunt, A.K., Pychyl, T.A. (2000). Task aversiveness and procrastination: a multi-dimensional approach to task aversiveness across stages of personal projects. Per- sonality and Individual Differences, 28 (1), 153-167, doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00 091-4
Burka, J.B., Yuen, L.M. (1983). Procrastination: Why you do it, what to do about it. Reading: Addison-Wesley.
Costa, P.T., Jr., McCrae, R.R. (1980). Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: Happy and unhappy people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38 (4), 668-678, doi: 10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.118
Costa, P.T., Jr., McCrae, R.R. (1992). Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 4 (1), 5-13, doi: 10.1037/ 1040-3518.104.22.168
Costa, P.T., McCrae, R.R. (1991). The NEO Personality Inventory: Using the Five- Factor Model in counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69 (4), 367-372, doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1991.tb01524.x
Day, V., Mensink, D., O’Sullivan, M. (2000). Patterns of academic procrastination. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 30 (2), 120-134, doi: 10.1080/10790195.2000. 10850090
Ellis, A., Knaus, W.J. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. New York: Institute for Rational Living.
Ferrari, J.R. (1991). Compulsive procrastination: Some self-reported characteristics. Psychological Reports,68 (2), 455-458, doi: 10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1245
Ferrari, J.R. (2001). Procrastination as self-regulation failure of performance: Effects of cognitive load, self-awareness, and time limits on working best under pressure. European Journal of Personality,15 (5),391-406, doi: 10.1002/per.413
Ferrari, J.R. (2010). Still procrastinating? The no regrets guide to getting it done. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Ferrari, J.R., Díaz-Morales, J.F., O’Callaghan, J., Díaz, K., Argumedo, D. (2007). Frequent behavioral delay tendencies by adults: International prevalence rates of chronic procrastination. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38 (4), 458-464, doi: 10.1177/0022022107302314
Ferrari, J.R., Emmons, R.A. (1994). Procrastination as revenge: Do people report using delays as a strategy for vengeance? Personality and Individual Differences, 17 (4), 539-544, doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)90090-6
Ferrari, J.R., Tice, D.M. (2000). Procrastination as a self-handicap for men and women: A task-avoidance strategy in a laboratory setting. Journal of Research in Personality,34 (1), 73-83, doi: 10.1006/jrpe.1999.2261
Ferrari, J.R., Dovidio, J.F. (2000). Examining behavioral processes in indecision: decisional procrastination and decision-making style. Journal of Research in Personality, 34 (1), 127-137, doi: 10.1006/jrpe.1999.2247
Ferrari, J.R., Dovidio, J.F. (2001). Behavioral information search by indecisiveness. Personality and Individual Differences,30 (7), 1113-1123, doi: 10.1016/S0191-88 69(00)00094-5
Ferrari, J.R., Johnson, J.L., McCown, W.G. (1995). Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.
Flett, G.L., Blankstein, K.R., Martin, T.R. (1995). Procrastination, negative self-evaluation, and stress in depression and anxiety: A review and preliminary model. W: J.R. Ferrari, J.H. Johnson, W.G. McGowan (red.), Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment (s. 137-167). New York: Plenum Press. Retrived 2.09.2016 fromhttp://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4899-02 27-6_7#page-1
Flett, G.L., Hewitt, P.L., Martin, T.R. (1995). Dimensions of perfectionism and procrastination. W: J.R. Ferrari, J.L. Johnson, W.G. McCown (red.), Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment(s. 113-136). New York: Plenum Press. Retrived 2.09.2016 from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978- -1-4899-0227-6_7#page-1
Germeijs, V., De Boeck, P. (2002). A measurement scale for indecisiveness and its relationship to career indecision and other types of indecision. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18 (2), 113-122, doi: 10.1027//1015-57126.96.36.199
Giddens, A. (1999). Risk and responsibility. Modern Law Review, 61, 1, 1-10.
Giddens, A. (2001). Nowoczesność i tożsamość. „Ja” i społeczeństwo w epoce późnej nowoczesności [ang. Modernity and Identity. “I” and the Society in the Late Modernity Epoch]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Harriott, J.S., Ferrari, J.R., Dovidio, J.F. (1996). Distractibility, daydreaming, and self-critical cognitions as determinants of indecision. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11(2), 337-344.
Harriott, J., Ferrari, J.R. (1996). Prevalence of procrastination among samples of adults. Psychological Reports, 78 (2), 611-616, doi: 10.2466/pr0.19188.8.131.521
Haycock, L.A., McCarthy, P., Skay, C.L. (1998). Procrastination in college students: The role of self-efficacy and anxiety. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76 (3), 317-324.
Howell, A.J., Watson, D.C. (2007). Procrastination: Associations with achievement goal orientation and learning strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 43 (1),167-178, doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.11.017
Johnson, J.L., Bloom, M.A. (1995). An analysis of the contribution of the five factors of personality to variance in academic procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 18 (1), 127-133, doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)00109-6
Klingsieck, K.B. (2013). Procrastination: When good things don’t come to those who wait. European Psychologist, 18 (1), 24-34, doi: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000138
Knaus, W.J. (1979). Do it now. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Lay, C. (1995). Trait procrastination, agitation, dejection, and self-discrepancy. W: J.R. Ferrari, J.L. Johnson, W.G. McCown (red.), Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory. research, and treatment(s. 97-112). New York: Plenum Press.
Lay, C., Edwards, J.M., Parker, J.D.A., Endler, N.S. (1989). An assessment of appraisal, anxiety, coping, and procrastination during an examination period. European Journal of Personality, 3 (3), 195-208, doi: 10.1002/per.2410030305
Lay, C.H., Knish, S., Zanatta, R. (1992). Self-handicappers and procrastinators: A comparison of their practice behavior prior to an evaluation. Journal of Research in Personality,26, 242-257, doi: 10.1016/0092-6566(92)90042-3
Little, B.R. (1983). Personal projects a rationale and method for investigation. Environment and behavior, 15 (3), 273-309, doi: 10.1177/0013916583153002
Locke, E.A., Latham, G.P (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Locke, E.A., Latham, G.P. (2004). What should we do about motivation theory? Six recommendations for the twenty-first century. Academy of Management Review, 29 (3), 388-403, doi: 10.5465/AMR.2004.1367097
Markiewicz, K., (2017). Mediators of relationship between procrastination and neuroticism. Acta Neuropsychologica, 15 (3), 303-313, doi: 10.5604/01.3001.0010.6095
McCown, W., Johnson, J. Petzel, T. (1989). Procrastination, a principal components analysis. Personality & Individual Differences, 10 (2), 197-202, doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(89)90204-3
Milgram, N., Tenne, R. (2000). Personality correlates of decisional and task avoidant procrastination. European Journal of Personality, 14 (2), 141-156.
Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2000). Academic procrastinators and perfectionistic tendencies among graduate students. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15 (5), 103- 109. Retrived 3.09.2016 from http://search.proquest.com/openview/e6ab4c0fb9e 8d3388a6b327330fce70a/1?pq-origsite=gscholar
Park, S.W. Sperling, R.A. (2012). Academic Procrastinators and Their Self-Regulation. Psychology, 3 (1), 12-23, doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.31003, http://file.scirp.org/Html/ 17051.html
Pintrich, P.R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. W: M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, M. Zeidner (red.), Handbook of self-regulation(s. 451-502). New York: Academic Press.
Procee, R., Kamphorst, B., Meyer, J.J., Van Wissen, A., (2013). A formal model of procrastination. BNAIC 2: Proceedings of the 25th Benelux Conference on Artificial Intelligence (Paper 86). Retrived 14.09.2016 from http://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid:f64556f8-d9bf-4421-a4e0-5b7dcaad163f/?collection=research
Renn, O. (1998). Three decades of risk research: accomplishments and new challenges. Journal of Risk Research, 1 (1), 49-71, doi: 10.1080/136698798377321
Rosa, E.A. (2010). The logical status of risk: To burnish or to dull. Journal of Risk Research,13 (3), 135-152.
Ruiz-Caballero, J.A., Bermudez, J. (1995). Neuroticism, mood, and retrieval of negative personal memories. Journal of General Psychology, 122 (1), 29-35, doi: 10.1080/ 00221309.1995.9921219
Saklofske, D.F., Kelly, I.W., Jansen, B.L. (1995). Neuroticism, depression, and depression proneness. Personality and Individual Differences, 18 (1), 27-31, doi: 10.1016/01 91-8869(94)00128-F
Scher, S.J., Osterman, N.M. (2002). Procrastination, conscientiousness, anxiety, and goals: exploring the measurement and correlates of procrastination among school-aged children. Faculty Research and Creative Activity(Paper 30). Retrived 2.10.2016 from http://thekeep.eiu.edu/psych_fac/30
Schlenker, B.R., Weigold, M.F. (1990). Self-consciousness and self-presentation: Being autonomous versus appearing autonomous. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59 (4), 820-828, doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2060
Schouwenburg, H.C., Lay, C.H. (1995). Trait procrastination and the Big-five factors of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 18 (4), 481-490, doi: 10.1016/ 0191-8869(94)00176-S
Sirois, F.M. (2004). Procrastination and intentions to perform health behaviors: The role of self-efficacy and the consideration of future consequences. Personality and Individual Differences, 37 (1), 115-128, doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2003.08.005
Sirois, F.M., Melia-Gordon, M.L., Pychyl, T.A. (2003). “I’ll look after my health, later”: an investigation of procrastination and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 35 (5), 1167-1184, doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00326-4.
Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133 (1), 65-94, doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65
Steel, P. (2010). Arousal, avoidant and decisional procrastinators: Do they exist? Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 926-934. Retrived 12.05.2016 from https:// www.psychologytoday.com/sites/default/files/attachments/49705/arousal- avoidant-and-decisional-procrastinators-do-they-exist.pdf
Steel, P., Ferrari, J. (2013). Sex, education and procrastination: An epidemiological study of procrastinators’ characteristics from a global sample. European Journal of Personality, 27 (1), 51-58, doi: 10.1002/per.1851
Stępień, M., Topolewska, E. (2014). Style tożsamości w ujęciu Berzonsky’ego a prokrastynacja [ang. Identity Styles in Bierzonsky’s Approach and Procrastination]. W: E. Topolewska, E. Skimina, S. Skrzek (red.), Młoda psychologia(t. 2, s. 145-160).Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Stowarzyszenia Filomatów.
Tan, C.X, Ang, R.P, Klassen, R.M, See Yeo, L., Wong, I.Y.F., Huan, V.S., Chong, W.H. (2008). Correlates of academic procrastination and students’ grade goals. Current Psychology – Research & Reviews, 27 (2), 135-144, doi: 10.1007/p.12144-008-9028-8
Tibbett, T.P. Ferrari, J.R. (2015). The portrait of the procrastinator: Risk factors and results of an indecisive personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 175-184, doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.014.
Tice, D.M., Baumeister, R.F. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Science, 8 (6), 454-458. Retrived 12.09.2016 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40063233
Van Eerde, W. (2000). Procrastination: Self-regulation in initiating aversive goals. Applied Psychology: An International Review,49 (3), 372-389, doi: 10.1111/1464-0597.00021
Van Eerde, W. (2003). A meta-analytically derived nomological network of procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 35 (6), 1401-1418, doi: 10.1016/ S0191-8869(02)00358-6
Vansteenkiste, M., Sierens, E. Soenens, B., Luyckx, K., Lens, W. (2009). Motivational profiles from a self-determination perspective: The quality of motivation matters. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101 (3), 671-688, doi: 10.1037/a0015083
Watson, D.C. (2001). Procrastination and the five-factor model: a facet level analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 30 (1), 149-158, doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(00) 00019-2
Zawadzki, B., Strelau, J., Szczepaniak, P., Śliwińska, M. (1998). Inwentarz Osobowości NEO-FFI Costy i McCrae. Podręcznik do polskiej adaptacji[ang. Personality Inventory NEO-FFI Costy and McCrae. Handbook for Polish Adaptation]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
Zimmerman, B.J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An over-view. Theory into Practice, 41 (2),64-70, doi: 10.1207/s15430421tip4102_2
Zimmerman, B.J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation. A Social cognitive perspective. W: M. Boekaerts, P.R. Pintrich, M. Zeidner (red.), Handbook of self-regulation(s. 13-39). San Diego: Academic Press.